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Ask the LEO community. Recent lookups click on a word to display the dictionary results again: Zur mobilen Version wechseln. Orthographically similar words ancients.

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Retrieved from " https: Ancient Greek novels Ancient Greek literature. All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Spain, which was at one time unrivaled in Europe, had been declining for a long time when it was crippled by Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion.

Sensing the time was right, Spain's vast colonies in South America began a series of rebellions that ended with almost all of the Spanish territories gaining their independence.

The once mighty Ottoman Empire was wracked with a series of revolutions, resulting with the Ottoman's only holding a small region that surrounded the capital, Istanbul.

The Mughal empire, which was descended from the Mongol Khanate, was bested by the upcoming Maratha Confederacy.

All was going well for the Marathas until the British took an interest in the riches of India and the British ended up ruling not just the boundaries of Modern India, but also Pakistan, Burma, Nepal, Bangladesh and some Southern Regions of Afghanistan.

With the defeat of Napoleonic France, Britain became undoubtedly the most powerful country in the world, and by the end of the First World War controlled a Quarter of the world's population and a third of its surface.

However, the power of the British Empire did not end on land, since it had the greatest navy on the planet. Electricity, steel, and petroleum enabled Germany to become a great international power that raced to create empires of its own.

The Meiji Restoration was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure that was taking a firm hold at the beginning of the Meiji Era which coincided the opening of Japan by the arrival of the Black Ships of Commodore Matthew Perry and made Imperial Japan a great power.

Russia and Qing Dynasty China failed to keep pace with the other world powers which led to massive social unrest in both empires. The Qing Dynasty's military power weakened during the 19th century, and faced with international pressure, massive rebellions and defeats in wars, the dynasty declined after the midth century.

European powers controlled parts of Oceania, with French New Caledonia from and French Polynesia from ; the Germans established colonies in New Guinea in , and Samoa in This was a long period of prosperity for the British people, as profits gained from the overseas British Empire, as well as from industrial improvements at home, allowed a large, educated middle class to develop.

Some scholars would extend the beginning of the period—as defined by a variety of sensibilities and political games that have come to be associated with the Victorians—back five years to the passage of the Reform Act In Britain's "imperial century", [68] victory over Napoleon left Britain without any serious international rival, other than Russia in central Asia.

Unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, a state of affairs later known as the Pax Britannica , and a foreign policy of " splendid isolation ".

Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, Britain's dominant position in world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many nominally independent countries, such as China, Argentina and Siam , which has been generally characterized as " informal empire ".

British imperial strength was underpinned by the steamship and the telegraph , new technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, allowing it to control and defend the Empire.

By , the British Empire was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, the so-called All Red Line.

The Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. The ensuing period is called the Restoration, following French usage, and is characterized by a sharp conservative reaction and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church as a power in French politics.

As part of the settlement, almost all of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine was taken by Prussia to become a part of Germany, which it would retain until the end of World War I.

Slavery was greatly reduced around the world in the 19th century. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti , Britain forced the Barbary pirates to halt their practice of kidnapping and enslaving Europeans, banned slavery throughout its domain , and charged its navy with ending the global slave trade.

Slavery was then abolished in Russia , America , and Brazil. Following the abolition of the slave trade in and propelled by economic exploitation, the Scramble for Africa was initiated formally at the Berlin West Africa Conference in — The Berlin Conference attempted to avoid war among the European powers by allowing the European rival countries to carve up the continent of Africa into national colonies.

Africans were not consulted. The major European powers laid claim to the areas of Africa where they could exhibit a sphere of influence over the area.

These claims did not have to have any substantial land holdings or treaties to be legitimate. The European power that demonstrated its control over a territory accepted the mandate to rule that region as a national colony.

With the colonial claim came the underlying assumption that the European power that exerted control would use its mandate to offer protection and provide welfare for its colonial peoples, however, this principle remained more theory than practice.

There were many documented instances of material and moral conditions deteriorating for native Africans in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries under European colonial rule, to the point where the colonial experience for them has been described as "hell on earth.

However, from Europe's perspective, they were dividing an unknown continent. European countries established a few coastal colonies in Africa by the mid-nineteenth century, which included Cape Colony Great Britain , Angola Portugal , and Algeria France , but until the late nineteenth century Europe largely traded with free African states without feeling the need for territorial possession.

Great Britain controlled various colonial holdings in East Africa that spanned the length of the African continent from Egypt in the north to South Africa.

By , almost the entire continent was under European control. Liberia , which was settled by freed American slaves in the s, and Abyssinia Ethiopia in eastern Africa were the last remaining independent African states.

Around the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, the Meiji era occurred during the reign of the Meiji Emperor.

During this time, Japan started its modernization and rose to world power status. This era name means "Enlightened Rule".

In Japan, the Meiji Restoration started in the s, marking the rapid modernization by the Japanese themselves along European lines. Much research has focused on the issues of discontinuity versus continuity with the previous Tokugawa Period.

Japan expanded its military production base by opening arsenals in various locations. The hyobusho war office was replaced with a War Department and a Naval Department.

The samurai class suffered great disappointment the following years. Laws were instituted that required every able-bodied male Japanese citizen, regardless of class, to serve a mandatory term of three years with the first reserves and two additional years with the second reserves.

The peasant class interpreted the term for military service, ketsu-eki "blood tax" literally, and attempted to avoid service by any means necessary.

The Japanese government began modelling their ground forces after the French military. The French government contributed greatly to the training of Japanese officers.

Many were employed at the military academy in Kyoto, and many more still were feverishly translating French field manuals for use in the Japanese ranks.

Foreigners would instrumental in aiding in Japan's modernization. A key foreign observer of the remarkable and rapid changes in Japanese society in this period was Ernest Mason Satow.

The Antebellum Age was a period of increasing division in the country based on the growth of slavery in the American South and in the western territories of Kansas and Nebraska that eventually led to the Civil War in The Antebellum Period is often considered to have begun with the Kansas—Nebraska Act of , [ citation needed ] although it may have begun as early as This period is also significant because it marked the transition of American manufacturing to the industrial revolution.

During this time, the United States expanded to the Pacific Ocean—"from sea to shining sea"—largely defining the borders of the contiguous United States as they are today.

Led by Jefferson Davis , they fought against the U. Northern leaders agreed that victory would require more than the end of fighting.

Secession and Confederate nationalism had to be totally repudiated and all forms of slavery or quasi-slavery had to be eliminated. Lincoln proved effective in mobilizing support for the war goals, raising large armies and supplying them, avoiding foreign interference, and making the end of slavery a war goal.

The Confederacy had a larger area than it could defend, and it failed to keep its ports open and its rivers clear as was the case in the Battle of Vickysburg.

The North kept up the pressure as the South could barely feed and clothe its soldiers. Its soldiers, especially those in the East under the command of General Robert E.

Lee proved highly resourceful until they finally were overwhelmed by Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. The Reconstruction Era —77 began with the Emancipation proclamation in , and included freedom, full citizenship and voting rights for Southern blacks.

It was followed by a reaction that left the blacks in a second class status legally, politically, socially and economically until the s.

During the Gilded Age, there was substantial growth in population in the United States and extravagant displays of wealth and excess of America's upper-class during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction era, in the late 19th century.

The wealth polarization derived primarily from industrial and population expansion. The businessmen of the Second Industrial Revolution created industrial towns and cities in the Northeast with new factories, and contributed to the creation of an ethnically diverse industrial working class which produced the wealth owned by rising super-rich industrialists and financiers called the "robber barons".

An example is the company of John D. Rockefeller , who was an important figure in shaping the new oil industry. Using highly effective tactics and aggressive practices, later widely criticized, Standard Oil absorbed or destroyed most of its competition.

The creation of a modern industrial economy took place. With the creation of a transportation and communication infrastructure , the corporation became the dominant form of business organization and a managerial revolution transformed business operations.

The law forbade every contract, scheme, deal, or conspiracy to restrain trade, though the phrase "restraint of trade" remained subjective. By the beginning of the 20th century, per capita income and industrial production in the United States exceeded that of any other country except Britain.

Long hours and hazardous working conditions led many workers to attempt to form labor unions despite strong opposition from industrialists and the courts.

But the courts did protect the marketplace, declaring the Standard Oil group to be an "unreasonable" monopoly under the Sherman Antitrust Act in It ordered Standard to break up into 34 independent companies with different boards of directors.

Replacing the classical physics in use since the end of the scientific revolution, modern physics arose in the early 20th century with the advent of quantum physics , [75] substituting mathematical studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure.

In biology, Darwinism gained acceptance, promoting the concept of adaptation in the theory of natural selection. The fields of geology , astronomy and psychology also made strides and gained new insights.

In medicine , there were advances in medical theory and treatments. Starting one-hundred years before the 20th century, the enlightenment spiritual philosophy was challenged in various quarters around the s.

These ideas were challenged, for example by the young Karl Marx , who criticized the project of political emancipation embodied in the form of human rights , asserting it to be symptomatic of the very dehumanization it was supposed to oppose.

For Friedrich Nietzsche , humanism was nothing more than a secular version of theism. In his Genealogy of Morals , he argues that human rights exist as a means for the weak to collectively constrain the strong.

On this view, such rights do not facilitate emancipation of life, but rather deny it. In the 20th century, the notion that human beings are rationally autonomous was challenged by the concept that humans were driven by unconscious irrational desires.

Sigmund Freud is renowned for his redefinition of sexual desire as the primary motivational energy of human life, as well as his therapeutic techniques, including the use of free association , his theory of transference in the therapeutic relationship, and the interpretation of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires.

Albert Einstein is known for his theories of special relativity and general relativity. He also made important contributions to statistical mechanics , especially his mathematical treatment of Brownian motion , his resolution of the paradox of specific heats , and his connection of fluctuations and dissipation.

Despite his reservations about its interpretation, Einstein also made contributions to quantum mechanics and, indirectly, quantum field theory , primarily through his theoretical studies of the photon.

At the end of the 19th century, Social Darwinism was promoted and included the various ideologies based on a concept that competition among all individuals, groups, nations, or ideas was a "natural" framework for social evolution in human societies.

In this view, society's advancement is dependent on the " survival of the fittest ", the term was in fact coined by Herbert Spencer and referred to in " The Gospel of Wealth " written by Andrew Carnegie.

Karl Marx summarized his approach to history and politics in the opening line of the first chapter of The Communist Manifesto The Manifesto went through a number of editions from to ; notable new prefaces were written by Marx and Engels for the German edition, the Russian edition, the German edition, and the English edition.

In general, Marxism identified five and one transitional successive stages of development in Western Europe. Major political developments saw the former British Empire lose most of its remaining political power over commonwealth countries.

Other events include the Israeli—Palestinian conflict , two world wars, and the Cold War. They kept the systems of government that they had developed as separate colonies but also would have a federal government that was responsible for matters concerning the whole nation.

When the Constitution of Australia came into force, the colonies collectively became states of the Commonwealth of Australia.

The last days of the Qing dynasty were marked with civil unrest, failed reforms and foreign invasions such as the Boxer rebellion.

Responding to these civil failures and discontent, the Qing Imperial Court did attempt to reform the government in various ways, as the decision to draft a constitution in , the establishment of provincial legislatures in , and the preparation for a national parliament in However, many of these measures were opposed by the conservatives of the Qing Court, and many reformers were either imprisoned or executed outright.

The failures of the Imperial Court to enact such reforming measures of political liberalization and modernization caused the reformists to steer toward the road of revolution.

The assertions of Chinese philosophy [92] began to integrate concepts of Western philosophy, as steps toward modernization.

By the time of the Xinhai Revolution in , there were many calls, such as the May Fourth Movement , to completely abolish the old imperial institutions and practices of China.

There were attempts to incorporate democracy , republicanism , and industrialism into Chinese philosophy, notably by Sun Yat-sen at the beginning of the 20th century.

But power in Beijing already had passed to Yuan Shikai , who had effective control of the Beiyang Army , the most powerful military force in China at the time.

To prevent civil war and possible foreign intervention from undermining the infant republic, leaders agreed to Army's demand that China be united under a Beijing government.

After the early 20th century revolutions, shifting alliances of China's regional warlords waged war for control of the Beijing government.

Despite the fact that various warlords gained control of the government in Beijing during the warlord era, this did not constitute a new era of control or governance, because other warlords did not acknowledge the transitory governments in this period and were a law unto themselves.

These military-dominated governments were collectively known as the Beiyang government. The warlord era ended around In the World's Population had approached approximately 1.

The Russians were in constant pursuit of a warm water port on the Pacific Ocean, for their navy as well as for maritime trade. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden , and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.

The resulting campaigns, in which the fledgling Japanese military consistently attained victory over the Russian forces arrayed against them, were unexpected by world observers.

These victories, as time transpired, would dramatically transform the distribution of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage.

The embarrassing string of defeats increased Russian popular dissatisfaction with the inefficient and corrupt Tsarist government.

The Russian Revolution of was a wave of mass political unrest through vast areas of the Russian Empire. Some of it was directed against the government, while some was undirected.

It included terrorism , worker strikes, peasant unrests, and military mutinies. It led to the establishment of the limited constitutional monarchy, [94] the establishment of State Duma of the Russian Empire , and the multi-party system.

The primary parties to the conflict were the Imperial forces of the Qing dynasty — , and the revolutionary forces of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Tongmenghui.

In the early years of the period, the Second Boer War in South Africa split the country into anti- and pro-war factions. The imperial policies of the Conservatives eventually proved unpopular and in the general election of the Liberals won a huge landslide.

The Liberal government was unable to proceed with all of its radical programme without the support of the House of Lords , which was largely Conservative.

Conflict between the two Houses of Parliament over the People's Budget led to a reduction in the power of the peers in The general election in January that year returned a hung parliament with the balance of power held by Labour and Irish Nationalist members.

The causes of World War I included many factors, including the conflicts and antagonisms of the four decades leading up to the war.

The alignment of the three powers, supplemented by various agreements with Japan , the United States, and Spain , constituted a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Germany , Austria-Hungary , and Italy , the third having concluded an additional secret agreement with France effectively nullifying her Alliance commitments.

Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism played major roles in the conflict. The immediate origins of the war lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the July Crisis of , the spark or casus belli for which was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.

However, the crisis did not exist in a void; it came after a long series of diplomatic clashes between the Great Powers over European and colonial issues in the decade prior to which had left tensions high.

The diplomatic clashes can be traced to changes in the balance of power in Europe since The railway became a source of international disputes during the years immediately preceding World War I.

Although it has been argued that they were resolved in before the war began, it has also been argued that the railroad was a cause of the First World War.

Austria-Hungary competed with Serbia and Russia for territory and influence in the region and they pulled the rest of the great powers into the conflict through their various alliances and treaties.

The Balkan Wars were two wars in South-eastern Europe in — in the course of which the Balkan League Bulgaria, Montenegro, Greece, and Serbia first captured Ottoman-held remaining part of Thessaly, Macedonia, Epirus, Albania and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the spoils, with incorporation of Romania this time.

The First World War began in and lasted to the final Armistice in The war caused the disintegration of four empires—the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman, and Russian ones—as well as radical change in the European and West Asian maps.

Much of the fighting in World War I took place along the Western Front , within a system of opposing manned trenches and fortifications separated by a " No man's land " running from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland.

On the Eastern Front , the vast eastern plains and limited rail network prevented a trench warfare stalemate from developing, although the scale of the conflict was just as large.

Hostilities also occurred on and under the sea and—for the first time—from the air. More than 9 million soldiers died on the various battlefields, and nearly that many more in the participating countries' home fronts on account of food shortages and genocide committed under the cover of various civil wars and internal conflicts.

Notably, more people died of the worldwide influenza outbreak at the end of the war and shortly after than died in the hostilities.

The unsanitary conditions engendered by the war, severe overcrowding in barracks, wartime propaganda interfering with public health warnings, and migration of so many soldiers around the world helped the outbreak become a pandemic.

Ultimately, World War I created a decisive break with the old world order that had emerged after the Napoleonic Wars , which was modified by the midth century's nationalistic revolutions.

More immediate to the time, the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire was a political event that redrew the political boundaries of West Asia. The huge conglomeration of territories and peoples formerly ruled by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new nations.

The League of Nations granted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Mesopotamia and Palestine which was later divided into two regions: The Russian Revolution is the series of revolutions in Russia in , which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union.

In October , a red faction revolution occurred in which the Red Guard , armed groups of workers and deserting soldiers directed by the Bolshevik Party, seized control of Saint Petersburg then known as Petrograd and began an immediate armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the former Russian Empire.

Another action in that is of note was the armistice signed between Russia and the Central Powers at Brest-Litovsk. The Bolsheviks made peace with the German Empire and the Central Powers , as they had promised the Russian people prior to the Revolution.

Vladimir Lenin's decision has been attributed to his sponsorship by the foreign office of Wilhelm II, German Emperor , offered by the latter in hopes that with a revolution, Russia would withdraw from World War I.

This suspicion was bolstered by the German Foreign Ministry's sponsorship of Lenin's return to Petrograd. The Western Allies expressed their dismay at the Bolsheviks, upset at:.

In addition, there was a concern, shared by many Central Powers as well, that the socialist revolutionary ideas would spread to the West.

Hence, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle".

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed and the Soviets under the domination of the Bolshevik party assumed power, first in Petrograd St.

Petersburg and then in other places. In the wake of the October Revolution , the old Russian Imperial Army had been demobilized; the volunteer-based Red Guard was the Bolsheviks' main military force, augmented by an armed military component of the Cheka , the Bolshevik state security apparatus.

There was an instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army. Many foreign armies warred against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces , yet many volunteer foreigners fought in both sides of the Russian Civil War.

Other nationalist and regional political groups also participated in the war, including the Ukrainian nationalist Green Army , the Ukrainian anarchist Black Army and Black Guards , and warlords such as Ungern von Sternberg.

The most intense fighting took place from to Major military operations ended on 25 October when the Red Army occupied Vladivostok , previously held by the Provisional Priamur Government.

The majority of the fighting ended in with the defeat of General Pyotr Wrangel in the Crimea , but a notable resistance in certain areas continued until e.

While the early s was a time of flux for revolutionary Russia and Central Asia, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was proclaimed in as the successor state to the fallen Russian Empire.

Revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin died of natural causes and was succeeded by Joseph Stalin. In , China declared war on Germany in the hope of recovering its lost province, then under Japanese control.

The New Culture Movement occupied the period from to Chinese representatives refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles , due to intense pressure from the student protesters and public opinion alike.

The May Fourth Movement helped to rekindle the then-fading cause of republican revolution. In Sun Yat-sen had become commander-in-chief of a rival military government in Guangzhou in collaboration with southern warlords.

Sun's efforts to obtain aid from the Western democracies were ignored, however, and in he turned to the Soviet Union, which had recently achieved its own revolution.

The Soviets sought to befriend the Chinese revolutionists by offering scathing attacks on Western imperialism. But for political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Chinese Communist Party CCP.

In early , the Kuomintang-CCP rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks. The "Nanjing Decade" of —37 was one of consolidation and accomplishment under the leadership of the Nationalists, with a mixed but generally positive record in the economy, social progress, development of democracy , and cultural creativity.

Some of the harsh aspects of foreign concessions and privileges in China were moderated through diplomacy. This period was marked by turmoil in much of the world, as Europe struggled to recover from the devastation of the First World War.

In North America, especially the first half of this period, people experienced considerable prosperity in the Roaring Twenties.

The Roaring Twenties , often called " The Jazz Age ", saw an exposition of social, artistic, and cultural dynamism.

The spirit of the Roaring Twenties was marked by a general feeling of discontinuity associated with modernity, a break with traditions.

Everything seemed to be feasible through modern technology. New technologies, especially automobiles, movies and radio proliferated 'modernity' to a large part of the population.

The s saw the general favor of practicality, in architecture as well as in daily life. The s was further distinguished by several inventions and discoveries, extensive industrial growth and the rise in consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle.

Europe spent these years rebuilding and coming to terms with the vast human cost of the conflict. The economy of the United States became increasingly intertwined with that of Europe.

In Germany, the Weimar Republic gave way to episodes of political and economic turmoil, which culminated with the German hyperinflation of and the failed Beer Hall Putsch of that same year.

When Germany could no longer afford war payments, Wall Street invested heavily in European debts to keep the European economy afloat as a large consumer market for American mass-produced goods.

By the middle of the decade, economic development soared in Europe, and the Roaring Twenties broke out in Germany, Britain and France, the second half of the decade becoming known as the " Golden Twenties ".

German Nazis created large public performances to earn public support. Worldwide prosperity changed dramatically with the onset of the Great Depression in The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn starting in most places in and ending at different times in the s or early s for different countries.

The depression had devastating effects in virtually every country, rich or poor. International trade plunged by half to two-thirds, as did personal income, tax revenue, prices and profits.

Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries.

Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by roughly 60 percent. The Great Depression ended at different times in different countries with the effect lasting into the next era.

In some world states, the desperate citizens turned toward nationalist demagogues —the most infamous being Adolf Hitler —setting the stage for the next era of war.

The convulsion brought on by the worldwide depression resulted in the rise of Nazism. In Asia, Japan became an ever more assertive power, especially with regards to China.

The interwar period was also marked by a radical change in the international order, away from the balance of power that had dominated pre—World War I Europe.

One main institution that was meant to bring stability was the League of Nations , which was created after the First World War with the intention of maintaining world security and peace and encouraging economic growth between member countries.

English They're very ancient. Die einzigartige Kulturlandschaft des Mittelrheintales wird bestimmt durch die natürlichen Gegebenheiten des steilhängigen Flusstales und der vom Menschen geprägten Landschaft des Steillagen- bzw. Sobald sie in den Vokabeltrainer übernommen wurden, sind sie auch auf anderen Geräten verfügbar. The tour includes a visit to a farm where we will see the various stages in the preparation of Cultural Traceability and ricotta, tasting the various cheeses accompanied by fresh milk and buns, then visit a winery where accompanied dall'enologo discover the many varieties grown and taste the various wines by the DOCG Cerasuolo di Vittoria Nero d'Avola, the last stop [ The striated muscles of cnidarians and higher organisms most probably evolved independently. Beginnend mit einem kurzen Abriss. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch ancient Greek. Weder hatten die [ Your Schlafräume sind nur einen kurzen Spaziergang entfernt, von wo die eigentlichen Mönche und Kung-Fu-Schüler leben und dein Fenster scheint die beste de. Our results also suggest that TB as a disease may be much younger than previously thought and likely evolved in Africa only about years ago. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch ancient history. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch ancient Rome. Auch hierdurch lassen sich die Verbindungen zwischen dem einzigartigen Produkt "Lardo di Colonnata" und der Alltagskultur in dem [ Ein Beispiel aus dem Internet. Diese Seite richtet sich an alle diejenigen, die nach [

übersetzung ancient -

Sie können aber jederzeit auch unangemeldet das Forum durchsuchen. In fact, especially during the summer months, visitors are offered a varied program: English The right of petition is one of the most ancient to which ordinary citizens are entitled. Already the germanic tribes h… 15 Antworten Mehr. Hier kannst Du mehr darüber lesen. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch since ancient times fig fam very old. Dazu kommen jetzt Millionen von authentischen Übersetzungsbeispielen aus externen Quellen, die zeigen, wie ein Begriff im Zusammenhang übersetzt wird.

Ancient übersetzung -

It goes back as long as there is written history. Diese Offenbarung der Freiheit und somit der wahren Würde des Menschen erhält für die. Sie können aber jederzeit auch unangemeldet das Forum durchsuchen. Each community shall help the other with every counsel and favour and at its own expense in the event of any assault on persons or goods within and without the valleys and to this end have sworn a solemn oath to uphold this agreement in confirmation and renewal of a more ancient accord. The project focuses in particular on the following issues:. Heute befindet sich im Alten Rathaus das Stadtarchiv, dessen Bestände nach Vereinbarung benutzt werden können. Diese Sätze sind von externen Quellen und können mitunter Fehler enthalten.

Italian unification was the political and social movement that annexed different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy in the 19th century.

Toward the end of the early modern period, Europe was dominated by the evolving system of mercantile capitalism in its trade and the New Economy.

European states and politics had the characteristic of Absolutism. The French power and English revolutions dominated the political scene.

There eventually evolved an international balance of power that held at bay a great conflagration until years later.

The end date of the early modern period is usually associated with the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in about Another significant date is , the beginning of the French Revolution, which drastically transformed the state of European politics and ushered in the Prince Edward Era and modern Europe.

The French and Indian Wars were a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars.

In Quebec, the wars are generally referred to as the Intercolonial Wars. While some conflicts involved Spanish and Dutch forces, all pitted Great Britain, its colonies and American Indian allies on one side and France, its colonies and Indian allies on the other.

The expanding French and British colonies were contending for control of the western, or interior, territories.

Whenever the European countries went to war, there were actions within and by these colonies although the dates of the conflict did not necessarily exactly coincide with those of the larger conflicts.

Beginning the Age of Revolution, the American Revolution and the ensuing political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century saw the Thirteen Colonies of North America overthrow the governance of the Parliament of Great Britain, and then reject the British monarchy itself to become the sovereign United States of America.

In this period the colonies first rejected the authority of the Parliament to govern them without representation, and formed self-governing independent states.

The Second Continental Congress then joined together against the British to defend that self-governance in the armed conflict from to known as the American Revolutionary War also called American War of Independence.

The American Revolution began with fighting at Lexington and Concord. On July 4, , they issued the Declaration of Independence, which proclaimed their independence from Great Britain and their formation of a cooperative union.

Although he was temporarily disabled by gout and unable to attend most meetings of the Committee, Franklin made several small changes to the draft sent to him by Thomas Jefferson.

The rebellious states defeated Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War, the first successful colonial war of independence.

While the states had already rejected the governance of Parliament, through the Declaration the new United States now rejected the legitimacy of the monarchy to demand allegiance.

The war raged for seven years, with effective American victory, followed by formal British abandonment of any claim to the United States with the Treaty of Paris.

The Philadelphia Convention set up the current United States; the United States Constitution ratification the following year made the states part of a single republic with a limited central government.

The Bill of Rights , comprising ten constitutional amendments guaranteeing many fundamental civil rights and freedoms, was ratified in The decolonization of the Americas was the process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule.

Decolonization began with a series of revolutions in the late 18th and early-to-midth centuries. The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America that took place during the early 19th century, from until , directly related to the Napoleonic French invasion of Spain.

The conflict started with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito opposing the composition of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville.

Countries in the Americas by date of independence. Note that the United States did not complete its continental territorial expansion until When the Central Junta fell to the French, numerous new Juntas appeared all across the Americas, eventually resulting in a chain of newly independent countries stretching from Argentina and Chile in the south, to Mexico in the north.

Unlike the Spanish, the Portuguese did not divide their colonial territory in America. The captaincies they created were subdued to a centralized administration in Salvador later relocated to Rio de Janeiro which reported directly to the Portuguese Crown until its independence in , becoming the Empire of Brazil.

The development of the steam engine started the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. The date of the Industrial Revolution is not exact. Eric Hobsbawm held that it "broke out" in the s and was not fully felt until the s or s, [59] while T.

The first Industrial Revolution merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around , when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships and railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electric power generation.

From a technological and a social point of view there is no clean break between the two. Major innovations during the period occurred in the chemical, electrical, petroleum, and steel industries.

Specific advancements included the introduction of oil fired steam turbine and internal combustion driven steel ships, the development of the airplane, the practical commercialization of the automobile, mass production of consumer goods, the perfection of canning, mechanical refrigeration and other food preservation techniques, and the invention of the telephone.

Industrialization is the process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society into an industrial one.

It is a subdivision of a more general modernization process, where social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation , particularly with the development of large-scale energy and metallurgy production.

It is the extensive organization of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing. Industrialization also introduces a form of philosophical change, where people obtain a different attitude towards their perception of nature.

An economy based on manual labour was replaced by one dominated by industry and the manufacture of machinery.

It began with the mechanization of the textile industries and the development of iron -making techniques, and trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals , improved roads, and then railways.

The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal and powered machinery mainly in textile manufacturing underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity.

The modern petroleum industry started in with the discovery of the process of refining kerosene from coal by Nova Scotian Abraham Pineo Gesner.

In , Benjamin Silliman , a science professor at Yale University in New Haven , was the first to fractionate petroleum by distillation.

These discoveries rapidly spread around the world. Engineering achievements of the revolution ranged from electrification to developments in materials science.

The advancements made a great contribution to the quality of life. In the first revolution, Lewis Paul was the original inventor of roller spinning, the basis of the water frame for spinning cotton in a cotton mill.

Matthew Boulton and James Watt 's improvements to the steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both the Kingdom of Great Britain and the world.

In the latter part of the second revolution, Thomas Alva Edison developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world and is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.

In , Edison switched on the world's first large-scale electrical supply network that provided volts direct current to fifty-nine customers in lower Manhattan.

Also toward the end of the second industrial revolution, Nikola Tesla made many contributions in the field of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The Industrial Revolutions were major technological , socioeconomic , and cultural changes in late 18th and early 19th centuries that began in Britain and spread throughout the world.

The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting the majority of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous and is often compared to the Neolithic revolution , when mankind developed agriculture and gave up its nomadic lifestyle.

It has been argued that GDP per capita was much more stable and progressed at a much slower rate until the industrial revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, and that it has since increased rapidly in capitalist countries.

The European Revolutions of , known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European continent.

Described as a revolutionary wave, the period of unrest began in France and then, further propelled by the French Revolution of , soon spread to the rest of Europe.

While the immediate political effects of the revolutions were reversed, the long-term reverberations of the events were far-reaching.

Industrial age reform movements began the gradual change of society rather than with episodes of rapid fundamental changes.

The reformists' ideas were often grounded in liberalism, although they also possessed aspects of utopian, socialist or religious concepts.

The Radical movement campaigned for electoral reform, a reform of the Poor Laws, free trade, educational reform, postal reform, prison reform, and public sanitation.

Following the Enlightenment's ideas, the reformers looked to the Scientific Revolution and industrial progress to solve the social problems which arose with the Industrial Revolution.

Newton's natural philosophy combined a mathematics of axiomatic proof with the mechanics of physical observation, yielding a coherent system of verifiable predictions and replacing a previous reliance on revelation and inspired truth.

Applied to public life, this approach yielded several successful campaigns for changes in social policy.

Under Peter the Great , Russia was proclaimed an Empire in and became recognized as a world power. Ruling from to , Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War , forcing it to cede West Karelia and Ingria two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Troubles , [66] as well as Estland and Livland , securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade.

Peter the Great's reforms brought considerable Western European cultural influences to Russia. Catherine II the Great , who ruled in —96, extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and incorporated most of its territories into Russia during the Partitions of Poland , pushing the Russian frontier westward and southward.

As the large realm embraced Absolute Monarchy Russia remained more conservative than its western neighbors.

In the 19th century, Russia was invaded by France in but emerged as a more powerful superpower afterwards. Nonetheless industrialization did not come to Russia until the s.

The Medieval practice of serfdom was abolished in freeing over thirty million Russian peasants. A market economy finally emerged in the Russian Empire.

However class warfare rose, and the nation was vulnerable due to rivalries with the United Kingdom , the Ottoman Empire , and the Japanese Empire.

Historians define the 19th century historical era as stretching from the Congress of Vienna to the outbreak of the First World War.

Alternatively, Eric Hobsbawm defined the "Long Nineteenth Century" as spanning the years to In the s and early s, once great and powerful Empires such as Spain, Ottoman Turkey, the Mughal Empire, and the Kingdom of Portugal began to break apart.

Spain, which was at one time unrivaled in Europe, had been declining for a long time when it was crippled by Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion.

Sensing the time was right, Spain's vast colonies in South America began a series of rebellions that ended with almost all of the Spanish territories gaining their independence.

The once mighty Ottoman Empire was wracked with a series of revolutions, resulting with the Ottoman's only holding a small region that surrounded the capital, Istanbul.

The Mughal empire, which was descended from the Mongol Khanate, was bested by the upcoming Maratha Confederacy. All was going well for the Marathas until the British took an interest in the riches of India and the British ended up ruling not just the boundaries of Modern India, but also Pakistan, Burma, Nepal, Bangladesh and some Southern Regions of Afghanistan.

With the defeat of Napoleonic France, Britain became undoubtedly the most powerful country in the world, and by the end of the First World War controlled a Quarter of the world's population and a third of its surface.

However, the power of the British Empire did not end on land, since it had the greatest navy on the planet. Electricity, steel, and petroleum enabled Germany to become a great international power that raced to create empires of its own.

The Meiji Restoration was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure that was taking a firm hold at the beginning of the Meiji Era which coincided the opening of Japan by the arrival of the Black Ships of Commodore Matthew Perry and made Imperial Japan a great power.

Russia and Qing Dynasty China failed to keep pace with the other world powers which led to massive social unrest in both empires. The Qing Dynasty's military power weakened during the 19th century, and faced with international pressure, massive rebellions and defeats in wars, the dynasty declined after the midth century.

European powers controlled parts of Oceania, with French New Caledonia from and French Polynesia from ; the Germans established colonies in New Guinea in , and Samoa in This was a long period of prosperity for the British people, as profits gained from the overseas British Empire, as well as from industrial improvements at home, allowed a large, educated middle class to develop.

Some scholars would extend the beginning of the period—as defined by a variety of sensibilities and political games that have come to be associated with the Victorians—back five years to the passage of the Reform Act In Britain's "imperial century", [68] victory over Napoleon left Britain without any serious international rival, other than Russia in central Asia.

Unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, a state of affairs later known as the Pax Britannica , and a foreign policy of " splendid isolation ".

Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, Britain's dominant position in world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many nominally independent countries, such as China, Argentina and Siam , which has been generally characterized as " informal empire ".

British imperial strength was underpinned by the steamship and the telegraph , new technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, allowing it to control and defend the Empire.

By , the British Empire was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, the so-called All Red Line. The Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne.

The ensuing period is called the Restoration, following French usage, and is characterized by a sharp conservative reaction and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church as a power in French politics.

As part of the settlement, almost all of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine was taken by Prussia to become a part of Germany, which it would retain until the end of World War I.

Slavery was greatly reduced around the world in the 19th century. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti , Britain forced the Barbary pirates to halt their practice of kidnapping and enslaving Europeans, banned slavery throughout its domain , and charged its navy with ending the global slave trade.

Slavery was then abolished in Russia , America , and Brazil. Following the abolition of the slave trade in and propelled by economic exploitation, the Scramble for Africa was initiated formally at the Berlin West Africa Conference in — The Berlin Conference attempted to avoid war among the European powers by allowing the European rival countries to carve up the continent of Africa into national colonies.

Africans were not consulted. The major European powers laid claim to the areas of Africa where they could exhibit a sphere of influence over the area.

These claims did not have to have any substantial land holdings or treaties to be legitimate. The European power that demonstrated its control over a territory accepted the mandate to rule that region as a national colony.

With the colonial claim came the underlying assumption that the European power that exerted control would use its mandate to offer protection and provide welfare for its colonial peoples, however, this principle remained more theory than practice.

There were many documented instances of material and moral conditions deteriorating for native Africans in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries under European colonial rule, to the point where the colonial experience for them has been described as "hell on earth.

However, from Europe's perspective, they were dividing an unknown continent. European countries established a few coastal colonies in Africa by the mid-nineteenth century, which included Cape Colony Great Britain , Angola Portugal , and Algeria France , but until the late nineteenth century Europe largely traded with free African states without feeling the need for territorial possession.

Great Britain controlled various colonial holdings in East Africa that spanned the length of the African continent from Egypt in the north to South Africa.

By , almost the entire continent was under European control. Liberia , which was settled by freed American slaves in the s, and Abyssinia Ethiopia in eastern Africa were the last remaining independent African states.

Around the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, the Meiji era occurred during the reign of the Meiji Emperor. During this time, Japan started its modernization and rose to world power status.

This era name means "Enlightened Rule". In Japan, the Meiji Restoration started in the s, marking the rapid modernization by the Japanese themselves along European lines.

Much research has focused on the issues of discontinuity versus continuity with the previous Tokugawa Period. Japan expanded its military production base by opening arsenals in various locations.

The hyobusho war office was replaced with a War Department and a Naval Department. The samurai class suffered great disappointment the following years.

Laws were instituted that required every able-bodied male Japanese citizen, regardless of class, to serve a mandatory term of three years with the first reserves and two additional years with the second reserves.

The peasant class interpreted the term for military service, ketsu-eki "blood tax" literally, and attempted to avoid service by any means necessary.

The Japanese government began modelling their ground forces after the French military. The French government contributed greatly to the training of Japanese officers.

Many were employed at the military academy in Kyoto, and many more still were feverishly translating French field manuals for use in the Japanese ranks.

Foreigners would instrumental in aiding in Japan's modernization. A key foreign observer of the remarkable and rapid changes in Japanese society in this period was Ernest Mason Satow.

The Antebellum Age was a period of increasing division in the country based on the growth of slavery in the American South and in the western territories of Kansas and Nebraska that eventually led to the Civil War in The Antebellum Period is often considered to have begun with the Kansas—Nebraska Act of , [ citation needed ] although it may have begun as early as This period is also significant because it marked the transition of American manufacturing to the industrial revolution.

During this time, the United States expanded to the Pacific Ocean—"from sea to shining sea"—largely defining the borders of the contiguous United States as they are today.

Led by Jefferson Davis , they fought against the U. Northern leaders agreed that victory would require more than the end of fighting.

Secession and Confederate nationalism had to be totally repudiated and all forms of slavery or quasi-slavery had to be eliminated.

Lincoln proved effective in mobilizing support for the war goals, raising large armies and supplying them, avoiding foreign interference, and making the end of slavery a war goal.

The Confederacy had a larger area than it could defend, and it failed to keep its ports open and its rivers clear as was the case in the Battle of Vickysburg.

The North kept up the pressure as the South could barely feed and clothe its soldiers. Its soldiers, especially those in the East under the command of General Robert E.

Lee proved highly resourceful until they finally were overwhelmed by Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. The Reconstruction Era —77 began with the Emancipation proclamation in , and included freedom, full citizenship and voting rights for Southern blacks.

It was followed by a reaction that left the blacks in a second class status legally, politically, socially and economically until the s.

During the Gilded Age, there was substantial growth in population in the United States and extravagant displays of wealth and excess of America's upper-class during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction era, in the late 19th century.

The wealth polarization derived primarily from industrial and population expansion. The businessmen of the Second Industrial Revolution created industrial towns and cities in the Northeast with new factories, and contributed to the creation of an ethnically diverse industrial working class which produced the wealth owned by rising super-rich industrialists and financiers called the "robber barons".

An example is the company of John D. Rockefeller , who was an important figure in shaping the new oil industry. Using highly effective tactics and aggressive practices, later widely criticized, Standard Oil absorbed or destroyed most of its competition.

The creation of a modern industrial economy took place. With the creation of a transportation and communication infrastructure , the corporation became the dominant form of business organization and a managerial revolution transformed business operations.

The law forbade every contract, scheme, deal, or conspiracy to restrain trade, though the phrase "restraint of trade" remained subjective.

By the beginning of the 20th century, per capita income and industrial production in the United States exceeded that of any other country except Britain.

Long hours and hazardous working conditions led many workers to attempt to form labor unions despite strong opposition from industrialists and the courts.

But the courts did protect the marketplace, declaring the Standard Oil group to be an "unreasonable" monopoly under the Sherman Antitrust Act in It ordered Standard to break up into 34 independent companies with different boards of directors.

Replacing the classical physics in use since the end of the scientific revolution, modern physics arose in the early 20th century with the advent of quantum physics , [75] substituting mathematical studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure.

In biology, Darwinism gained acceptance, promoting the concept of adaptation in the theory of natural selection. The fields of geology , astronomy and psychology also made strides and gained new insights.

In medicine , there were advances in medical theory and treatments. Starting one-hundred years before the 20th century, the enlightenment spiritual philosophy was challenged in various quarters around the s.

These ideas were challenged, for example by the young Karl Marx , who criticized the project of political emancipation embodied in the form of human rights , asserting it to be symptomatic of the very dehumanization it was supposed to oppose.

For Friedrich Nietzsche , humanism was nothing more than a secular version of theism. In his Genealogy of Morals , he argues that human rights exist as a means for the weak to collectively constrain the strong.

On this view, such rights do not facilitate emancipation of life, but rather deny it. In the 20th century, the notion that human beings are rationally autonomous was challenged by the concept that humans were driven by unconscious irrational desires.

Sigmund Freud is renowned for his redefinition of sexual desire as the primary motivational energy of human life, as well as his therapeutic techniques, including the use of free association , his theory of transference in the therapeutic relationship, and the interpretation of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires.

Albert Einstein is known for his theories of special relativity and general relativity. He also made important contributions to statistical mechanics , especially his mathematical treatment of Brownian motion , his resolution of the paradox of specific heats , and his connection of fluctuations and dissipation.

Despite his reservations about its interpretation, Einstein also made contributions to quantum mechanics and, indirectly, quantum field theory , primarily through his theoretical studies of the photon.

At the end of the 19th century, Social Darwinism was promoted and included the various ideologies based on a concept that competition among all individuals, groups, nations, or ideas was a "natural" framework for social evolution in human societies.

In this view, society's advancement is dependent on the " survival of the fittest ", the term was in fact coined by Herbert Spencer and referred to in " The Gospel of Wealth " written by Andrew Carnegie.

Karl Marx summarized his approach to history and politics in the opening line of the first chapter of The Communist Manifesto The Manifesto went through a number of editions from to ; notable new prefaces were written by Marx and Engels for the German edition, the Russian edition, the German edition, and the English edition.

In general, Marxism identified five and one transitional successive stages of development in Western Europe.

Major political developments saw the former British Empire lose most of its remaining political power over commonwealth countries.

Other events include the Israeli—Palestinian conflict , two world wars, and the Cold War. They kept the systems of government that they had developed as separate colonies but also would have a federal government that was responsible for matters concerning the whole nation.

When the Constitution of Australia came into force, the colonies collectively became states of the Commonwealth of Australia. The last days of the Qing dynasty were marked with civil unrest, failed reforms and foreign invasions such as the Boxer rebellion.

Responding to these civil failures and discontent, the Qing Imperial Court did attempt to reform the government in various ways, as the decision to draft a constitution in , the establishment of provincial legislatures in , and the preparation for a national parliament in However, many of these measures were opposed by the conservatives of the Qing Court, and many reformers were either imprisoned or executed outright.

The failures of the Imperial Court to enact such reforming measures of political liberalization and modernization caused the reformists to steer toward the road of revolution.

The assertions of Chinese philosophy [92] began to integrate concepts of Western philosophy, as steps toward modernization. By the time of the Xinhai Revolution in , there were many calls, such as the May Fourth Movement , to completely abolish the old imperial institutions and practices of China.

There were attempts to incorporate democracy , republicanism , and industrialism into Chinese philosophy, notably by Sun Yat-sen at the beginning of the 20th century.

But power in Beijing already had passed to Yuan Shikai , who had effective control of the Beiyang Army , the most powerful military force in China at the time.

To prevent civil war and possible foreign intervention from undermining the infant republic, leaders agreed to Army's demand that China be united under a Beijing government.

After the early 20th century revolutions, shifting alliances of China's regional warlords waged war for control of the Beijing government.

Despite the fact that various warlords gained control of the government in Beijing during the warlord era, this did not constitute a new era of control or governance, because other warlords did not acknowledge the transitory governments in this period and were a law unto themselves.

These military-dominated governments were collectively known as the Beiyang government. The warlord era ended around In the World's Population had approached approximately 1.

The Russians were in constant pursuit of a warm water port on the Pacific Ocean, for their navy as well as for maritime trade. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden , and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.

The resulting campaigns, in which the fledgling Japanese military consistently attained victory over the Russian forces arrayed against them, were unexpected by world observers.

These victories, as time transpired, would dramatically transform the distribution of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage.

The embarrassing string of defeats increased Russian popular dissatisfaction with the inefficient and corrupt Tsarist government.

The Russian Revolution of was a wave of mass political unrest through vast areas of the Russian Empire. Some of it was directed against the government, while some was undirected.

It included terrorism , worker strikes, peasant unrests, and military mutinies. It led to the establishment of the limited constitutional monarchy, [94] the establishment of State Duma of the Russian Empire , and the multi-party system.

The primary parties to the conflict were the Imperial forces of the Qing dynasty — , and the revolutionary forces of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Tongmenghui.

In the early years of the period, the Second Boer War in South Africa split the country into anti- and pro-war factions.

The imperial policies of the Conservatives eventually proved unpopular and in the general election of the Liberals won a huge landslide.

The Liberal government was unable to proceed with all of its radical programme without the support of the House of Lords , which was largely Conservative.

Conflict between the two Houses of Parliament over the People's Budget led to a reduction in the power of the peers in The general election in January that year returned a hung parliament with the balance of power held by Labour and Irish Nationalist members.

The causes of World War I included many factors, including the conflicts and antagonisms of the four decades leading up to the war.

The alignment of the three powers, supplemented by various agreements with Japan , the United States, and Spain , constituted a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Germany , Austria-Hungary , and Italy , the third having concluded an additional secret agreement with France effectively nullifying her Alliance commitments.

Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism played major roles in the conflict. The immediate origins of the war lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the July Crisis of , the spark or casus belli for which was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.

However, the crisis did not exist in a void; it came after a long series of diplomatic clashes between the Great Powers over European and colonial issues in the decade prior to which had left tensions high.

The diplomatic clashes can be traced to changes in the balance of power in Europe since The railway became a source of international disputes during the years immediately preceding World War I.

Although it has been argued that they were resolved in before the war began, it has also been argued that the railroad was a cause of the First World War.

Austria-Hungary competed with Serbia and Russia for territory and influence in the region and they pulled the rest of the great powers into the conflict through their various alliances and treaties.

The Balkan Wars were two wars in South-eastern Europe in — in the course of which the Balkan League Bulgaria, Montenegro, Greece, and Serbia first captured Ottoman-held remaining part of Thessaly, Macedonia, Epirus, Albania and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the spoils, with incorporation of Romania this time.

The First World War began in and lasted to the final Armistice in The war caused the disintegration of four empires—the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman, and Russian ones—as well as radical change in the European and West Asian maps.

Much of the fighting in World War I took place along the Western Front , within a system of opposing manned trenches and fortifications separated by a " No man's land " running from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland.

On the Eastern Front , the vast eastern plains and limited rail network prevented a trench warfare stalemate from developing, although the scale of the conflict was just as large.

Hostilities also occurred on and under the sea and—for the first time—from the air. More than 9 million soldiers died on the various battlefields, and nearly that many more in the participating countries' home fronts on account of food shortages and genocide committed under the cover of various civil wars and internal conflicts.

Notably, more people died of the worldwide influenza outbreak at the end of the war and shortly after than died in the hostilities.

The unsanitary conditions engendered by the war, severe overcrowding in barracks, wartime propaganda interfering with public health warnings, and migration of so many soldiers around the world helped the outbreak become a pandemic.

Ultimately, World War I created a decisive break with the old world order that had emerged after the Napoleonic Wars , which was modified by the midth century's nationalistic revolutions.

More immediate to the time, the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire was a political event that redrew the political boundaries of West Asia.

The huge conglomeration of territories and peoples formerly ruled by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new nations.

The League of Nations granted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Mesopotamia and Palestine which was later divided into two regions: The Russian Revolution is the series of revolutions in Russia in , which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union.

In October , a red faction revolution occurred in which the Red Guard , armed groups of workers and deserting soldiers directed by the Bolshevik Party, seized control of Saint Petersburg then known as Petrograd and began an immediate armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the former Russian Empire.

Another action in that is of note was the armistice signed between Russia and the Central Powers at Brest-Litovsk.

The Bolsheviks made peace with the German Empire and the Central Powers , as they had promised the Russian people prior to the Revolution.

Vladimir Lenin's decision has been attributed to his sponsorship by the foreign office of Wilhelm II, German Emperor , offered by the latter in hopes that with a revolution, Russia would withdraw from World War I.

This suspicion was bolstered by the German Foreign Ministry's sponsorship of Lenin's return to Petrograd. The Western Allies expressed their dismay at the Bolsheviks, upset at:.

In addition, there was a concern, shared by many Central Powers as well, that the socialist revolutionary ideas would spread to the West.

Hence, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle".

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed and the Soviets under the domination of the Bolshevik party assumed power, first in Petrograd St.

Petersburg and then in other places. In the wake of the October Revolution , the old Russian Imperial Army had been demobilized; the volunteer-based Red Guard was the Bolsheviks' main military force, augmented by an armed military component of the Cheka , the Bolshevik state security apparatus.

There was an instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army. Many foreign armies warred against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces , yet many volunteer foreigners fought in both sides of the Russian Civil War.

Other nationalist and regional political groups also participated in the war, including the Ukrainian nationalist Green Army , the Ukrainian anarchist Black Army and Black Guards , and warlords such as Ungern von Sternberg.

The most intense fighting took place from to Major military operations ended on 25 October when the Red Army occupied Vladivostok , previously held by the Provisional Priamur Government.

The majority of the fighting ended in with the defeat of General Pyotr Wrangel in the Crimea , but a notable resistance in certain areas continued until e.

While the early s was a time of flux for revolutionary Russia and Central Asia, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was proclaimed in as the successor state to the fallen Russian Empire.

Revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin died of natural causes and was succeeded by Joseph Stalin. In , China declared war on Germany in the hope of recovering its lost province, then under Japanese control.

The New Culture Movement occupied the period from to Chinese representatives refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles , due to intense pressure from the student protesters and public opinion alike.

The May Fourth Movement helped to rekindle the then-fading cause of republican revolution. In Sun Yat-sen had become commander-in-chief of a rival military government in Guangzhou in collaboration with southern warlords.

Sun's efforts to obtain aid from the Western democracies were ignored, however, and in he turned to the Soviet Union, which had recently achieved its own revolution.

The Soviets sought to befriend the Chinese revolutionists by offering scathing attacks on Western imperialism. But for political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Chinese Communist Party CCP.

In early , the Kuomintang-CCP rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks. The "Nanjing Decade" of —37 was one of consolidation and accomplishment under the leadership of the Nationalists, with a mixed but generally positive record in the economy, social progress, development of democracy , and cultural creativity.

Some of the harsh aspects of foreign concessions and privileges in China were moderated through diplomacy. This period was marked by turmoil in much of the world, as Europe struggled to recover from the devastation of the First World War.

In North America, especially the first half of this period, people experienced considerable prosperity in the Roaring Twenties. The Roaring Twenties , often called " The Jazz Age ", saw an exposition of social, artistic, and cultural dynamism.

The spirit of the Roaring Twenties was marked by a general feeling of discontinuity associated with modernity, a break with traditions.

Everything seemed to be feasible through modern technology. New technologies, especially automobiles, movies and radio proliferated 'modernity' to a large part of the population.

The s saw the general favor of practicality, in architecture as well as in daily life. The s was further distinguished by several inventions and discoveries, extensive industrial growth and the rise in consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle.

Europe spent these years rebuilding and coming to terms with the vast human cost of the conflict. The economy of the United States became increasingly intertwined with that of Europe.

In Germany, the Weimar Republic gave way to episodes of political and economic turmoil, which culminated with the German hyperinflation of and the failed Beer Hall Putsch of that same year.

When Germany could no longer afford war payments, Wall Street invested heavily in European debts to keep the European economy afloat as a large consumer market for American mass-produced goods.

By the middle of the decade, economic development soared in Europe, and the Roaring Twenties broke out in Germany, Britain and France, the second half of the decade becoming known as the " Golden Twenties ".

German Nazis created large public performances to earn public support. Worldwide prosperity changed dramatically with the onset of the Great Depression in The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn starting in most places in and ending at different times in the s or early s for different countries.

The depression had devastating effects in virtually every country, rich or poor. International trade plunged by half to two-thirds, as did personal income, tax revenue, prices and profits.

Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries.

Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by roughly 60 percent. The Great Depression ended at different times in different countries with the effect lasting into the next era.

In some world states, the desperate citizens turned toward nationalist demagogues —the most infamous being Adolf Hitler —setting the stage for the next era of war.

The convulsion brought on by the worldwide depression resulted in the rise of Nazism. In Asia, Japan became an ever more assertive power, especially with regards to China.

The interwar period was also marked by a radical change in the international order, away from the balance of power that had dominated pre—World War I Europe.

One main institution that was meant to bring stability was the League of Nations , which was created after the First World War with the intention of maintaining world security and peace and encouraging economic growth between member countries.

The League was undermined by the bellicosity of Nazi Germany , Imperial Japan , the Soviet Union, and Mussolini's Italy, and by the non-participation of the United States, leading many to question its effectiveness and legitimacy.

The League tried to enforce economic sanctions upon Italy, but to no avail. The incident highlighted French and British weakness, exemplified by their reluctance to alienate Italy and lose her as their ally.

The limited actions taken by the Western powers pushed Mussolini's Italy towards alliance with Hitler's Germany anyway. The Abyssinian war showed Hitler how weak the League was and encouraged the remilitarization of the Rhineland in flagrant disregard of the Treaty of Versailles.

This was the first in a series of provocative acts culminating in the invasion of Poland in September and the beginning of the Second World War.

Few Chinese had any illusions about Japanese designs on China. Hungry for raw materials and pressed by a growing population, Japan initiated the seizure of Manchuria in September and established ex-Qing emperor Puyi as head of the puppet state of Manchukuo in During the Sino-Japanese War — , the loss of Manchuria, and its vast potential for industrial development and war industries, was a blow to the Kuomintang economy.

The League of Nations , established at the end of World War I, was unable to act in the face of the Japanese defiance. After , conflicts between the Kuomintang and Communists became more frequent in the areas not under Japanese control.

The Communists expanded their influence wherever opportunities presented themselves through mass organizations, administrative reforms, and the land- and tax-reform measures favoring the peasants—while the Kuomintang attempted to neutralize the spread of Communist influence.

With the occupation of French Indochina in the years of —41, and with the continuing war in China, the United States placed embargoes on Japan of strategic materials such as scrap metal and oil, which were vitally needed for the war effort.

The Japanese were faced with the option of either withdrawing from China and losing face or seizing and securing new sources of raw materials in the resource-rich, European-controlled colonies of South East Asia —specifically British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies modern-day Indonesia.

The Second World War was a global military conflict that took place in — It was the largest and deadliest war in history, culminating in the Holocaust and ending with the dropping of the atom bomb.

Even though Japan had been invading in China since , the conventional view is that the war began on September 1, , when Nazi Germany invaded Poland, the Drang nach Osten.

Within two days the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany, even though the fighting was confined to Poland.

Pursuant to a then-secret provision of its non-aggression Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact , the Soviet Union joined with Germany on September 17, , to conquer Poland and to divide Eastern Europe.

All of these countries declared war on Germany in September Following the lull in fighting, known as the " Phoney War ", Germany invaded western Europe in May Six weeks later, France, in the mean time attacked by Italy as well, surrendered to Germany, which then tried unsuccessfully to conquer Britain.

Nine months later, on June 22, , Germany launched a massive invasion of the Soviet Union, which promptly joined the Allies. Germany was now engaged in fighting a war on two fronts.

This proved to be a mistake by Germany — Germany had not successfully carried out the invasion of Britain and the war turned against the Axis. Even so, the surviving texts arguably with the exception of Xenophon's Ephesian Tale show great sophistication in their handling of character, narrative and intertextuality.

Two stories included by Reardon in his list of novels have survived only as summaries: Both of these summaries are the work of Photios in his Bibliotheca.

The influence of the novelists is demonstrable on Musaeus' Hero and Leander , the late antique epic by Nonnus titled Dionysiaca , Procopius [ citation needed ] , the Byzantine novel , and Byzantine historiography in general.

Thanks in large part to Jacques Amyot 's translations, they were rediscovered in early modern Europe, and played an influential role in the formation of the modern novel, particularly the 'romance' variety.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Hellenistic romance. Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: Princeton University Press, Utas, The Virgin and her Lover: The True Story of the Novel.

The Novel in the Ancient World , 2nd ed. Brill, and T. Cambridge University Press, University of California Press, University of California Press, G.

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Alte Geschichte in Oldenburg sucht gezielt universalhistorische Zugänge zur Alten Geschichte, die das " nächste Fremde " Uvo Hölscher als Epoche des Experimentierens und der Vielfalt sehen lehren, ohne deren Kenntnis jede europäische Geschichte unverständlich bliebe.. In fact, especially during the summer months, visitors are offered a varied program: Die Babbiona Das Restaurant befindet [ Auch hierdurch lassen sich die Verbindungen zwischen dem einzigartigen Produkt "Lardo di Colonnata" und der Alltagskultur in dem. English What the secretary had found was an ancient book, the book of law. Langenscheidt Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch ancient. Se it der Antike war in allen Zivilisationen [ Energieerzeugung schaffen die wesentliche Grundlage für unsere Lebensführung und Kultur", sagt der Geschäftsführer von Voith Turbo und Leiter des Geschäftsbereichs Industrie.

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